Impact on the atmosphere

Impact on the environment


In the production of sulfate pulp, the environmental impact is expected in the following areas:

  • impact on atmospheric air when pollutants are released into the atmosphere;
  • impacts on surface waters during discharges of sewage;
  • acoustic impact of the mill on the environment;
  • impact on land resources when handling waste.                                                                         


A preliminary assessment of the environmental impact (EIA) of the proposed biorefining complex was carried out by the partner company Non-State Educational Institution "Environmental Consulting Center" (Arkhangelsk) under the direction of Shoshina L.V. The EIA was carried out in accordance with the requirements of the existing normative documents, using the appropriate techniques and software packages:

  • calculation of pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere was performed using the software package "PRISMA", Academic research and production enterprise "Logus" (certificate of conformity № ЕСС.СС.06.ПП.039 - 11).
  • the assessment of the influence of the object on the quality of atmospheric air was made on the points of maximum concentrations at the border of the normative sanitary protection zone of 1000 m (SanPiN 2.2.1 /
  • for acoustic calculations, a unified software package "Ecolog-Noise" dated March 25, 2008, developed by LLC "Firm Integral" (certificate of conformity No. ROSS RU.SP04.N00151, certificate of the Ministry of Health and Social Development of Russia No. 7 dated 01.06.2007) was used.
  • calculation of standards for the permissible discharge into a water body is made according to the "Methodology for developing standards for permissible discharges of substances and microorganisms into water bodies for water users" approved by Order No. 333 of the Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation on 17.12.2007.


Impact on the atmosphere


Major pollution sources: cooking and pulp washing departments, evaporation, power facilities, lime kiln..           


Minimizing atmospheric emissions is achieved through application of modern technological solutions:

  • technological processes run in enclosed production equipment, which rules out possibility of releasing pollutants;

  • non-condensable gases from digesting and washing room and evaporation room are collected, processed and directed to the soda recovery boiler (SRB) for incineration;

  • lime kilns, soda recovery boilers and steam boilers are equipped with high capacity electrostatic precipitators with purification rate not less than 99,8 %, which leads to reduction of atmospheric emissions;

  • Wood biomass is used instead of fossil fuels at the energy technology heat-electric generation plant.


EIA results:

Calculations have shown that operation of the facility at the boundary of sanitary protection zone and at the boundary of the nearest residential area will meet the requirements specified for air quality in communities:

  • the level of air pollution created by forest processing plant sources with account of current background pollution will not exceed 0.1 MPC (maximum permissible concentration), as well as sanitary and hygienic norms set for community air, at the boundary of sanitary protection zone and beyond it.

  • construction of a forest processing plant in Yenisey district, Krasnoyarskiy Kray with concurrent implementation of air protection measures satisfies up-to-date requirements on air-pollution control.  


Impacts on water bodies


Major sources of impact on ground and surface waters: :

  • withdrawal of water from the Yenisey river to provide service water;

  • withdrawal of water from an underground source to provide drinking water for staff;

  • discharge of treated sewage into the Yenisey river;

  • fugitive leaks of water and sewage from networks and structures into subsurface horizons.

Minimizing discharge into the Yenisey  river is achieved through:  

  • making the water cycle as closed as possible, use of up-to-date technology with reduced water consumption and use of conditionally pure waters in processes;

  • introducing efficient technologies including ozone bleaching of pulp, use of condensate, etc.;

  • installing a sewage treatment system;

  • dewatering sewage sludge with its further incineration at the treatment facilities;

  • presence of a recycled water cooling system with process water return;

  • local treatment of rainwater from the working site.


Hydro-chemical characteristics of the Yenisey river as compared to MPC norms and guarantees on discharge made by the projected pulp mill “Siberwood”:


EIA results:

Calculations have shown that the quality of discharged sewage in the 500-meter monitoring section will meet the requirements specified for water quality in water bodies classified as highest fish category.


Acoustic impact on the environment


Major noise sources:equipment (in the woodroom, cooking department and pulp washing, bleaching, pulp drying room, thermal power station, boiler rooms, turbine house, evaporation room, white liquor plant, chemical production department, etc.) and cargo handling operations. 


EIA results:
Calculations have shown that noise levels at reference points at the boundary of the standard sanitary protection zone will not exceed allowable noise levels in communities specified in SN 2.2.4/


Environmental impact connected to waste treatment


Main types of generated waste: production waste – residual wood and bark (88.7%), sewage sludge left after biological and mechanical wastewater treatment; waste generated by operational stuff; waste from auxiliary production facilities. 


Waste generation by main and auxiliary production facilities




Minimizing waste impact on land resources and surface waters during waste treatment is achieved through following the rules of safe handling of waste, as well as:  

  • incineration of waste at the thermal power station as a fuel for producing heat;

  • disposal of non-recyclable wastes at an industrial and municipal waste landfill;

  • transfer of wastes which are not to be burned, dumped at a landfill or an ash and slurry pit, to specialized licensed organizations.


Treating wastes produced by main and auxiliary production facilities



EIA results:  

  • Proper treatment of wastes and pulpwood is one of the most efficient measures for reducing negative waste impact on the environment in an added-value production facility. Process design solutions allow using more than 96% of waste to produce heat and electric power. 

  • In case of implementing the specified procedure of waste collection and treatment, following sanitary and hygienic norms on waste storage and disposal, the wastes generated during construction and operation of the facility will not have a negative impact on the environment.


Assessment of impact on all components of environment has shown that the environmental impact will be acceptable.